Maharishi University of Management

"Close the eyes and transcend, open the eyes and read the Vedic Literature in Sanskrit." — Maharishi Mahesh Yogi


Shiksha is one of the structuring dynamics of Rk Veda. It highlights the quality of EXPRESSION involved in structuring Rk Veda. With reference to consciousness, Shiksha comprises the specific sets of laws of Nature that are engaged in promoting the quality of Rishi — the observer, the witnessing quality — within the Samhita level of consciousness, providing a structure to the eternally silent, self-referral, self-sufficient, fully awake state of consciousness, which is intimately personal to everyone.(complete table of qualities)

In the physiology, Shiksha is represented by the structures which compute and express the internal aspects of the physiology, such as its biochemical constituents, temperature, pressure, etc. (the expressions of the autonomic nervous system).These expressions are channeled via the autonomic ganglia. These are 36 on each side of the spinal cord, corresponding to the 36 books of Shiksha.

— Prof. Tony Nader-Ram
in Human Physiology:

Expression of Veda and the
Vedic Literature,
pp. 80-81

According to Śikṣādivedāṅgasūcī, there are broadly three categories of texts that belong to the field of Śikṣā.
1. First are the textbooks which systematically present the theories of Sanskrit phonetics, the rules of pronunciation, and the procedures for reciting the Vedic texts. These texts bear the names of the great seers of ancient times, the Śikṣākāras who wrote them. Śikṣādivedāṅgasūcī lists 18 seers, mostly associated with Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, but as many as 45 have been known in times past. Currently we have Śikṣā texts named for 36 different seers.

2. Second is a broad class of texts dealing with specific issues of pronunciation and recitation. Śikṣādivedāṅgasūcī lists 36 such texts. Most of these 36 deal with topics from the Taittirīya recension of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, so a comprehensive list including parallel texts from all the different Vedas might number nearly 200. Here we present about 90 different texts, dominated by the specialized texts belonging to the Taittirīya recension of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda.

3. The third category is Sapta Lakṣaṇam. The texts in this category are lists of words having specific characteristics. There are in principle Sapta Lakṣaṇas for each of the five Vedas, for a total of 35 constituent texts (36 counting 8 for Sāma Veda), but in practice, we only have texts for Ṛg Veda, Sāma Veda and Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda.

Dr. Tony Nader, M.D., Ph.D., in his book Human Physiology, Expression of Veda and Vedic Literature correlates Śikṣā with the 36 pairs of autonomic ganglia arranged along the spine. The three-fold categorization of texts which we learn from Śikṣādivedāṅgasūcī allows us to identify 36 texts where the Ṛṣi value is predominant (Category 1), 36 texts where the Devatā value is predominant (Category 2), and 36 texts where the Chhandas value is predominant (Category 3). Thus it appears that there should be three Śikṣā texts, one Ṛṣi, one Devatā, and one Chhandas, correlated with each of the 36 pairs of autonomic ganglia. This dramatically expands the range of texts to be included in the curriculum of Śikṣā, while at the same time upholding and strengthening the correlation between Vedic Literature and the human physiology as described by Dr. Tony Nader.

Śhikṣhā html-text and pdf files -- [See also Hamburg Ātreya Śikṣā Codex]


  1. Bhāradvāja Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  2. Vyāsa Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  3. Pāri Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  4. Śhambhu Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  5. Kauhalīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  6. Vāsiṣhṭha Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  7. Vāsiṣhṭhī Śhikṣhā (Tirupati) (PDF)
    Vāsiṣhṭhī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  8. Āpiśhali Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  9. Kauṇḍinya Śhikṣhā (Hyderabad) (PDF)
  10. Kauṇḍinya Śhikṣhā (Mysore) (PDF)
  11. Pāṇinīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  12. Ātreya Śhikṣhā (Hamburg) (PDF)
  13. Ātreya Śhikṣhā (Madras) (PDF)
  14. Ātreya Śhikṣhā (Chandigarh) (PDF)
  15. Nāradīyā Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  16. Vyāli Śikṣā (Aṣṭavikṛtivivṛtiḥ) (PDF)
  17. Vyāli Śhikṣhā (2) (PDF)
  18. Vyāla Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  19. Śhaiśhirīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  20. Lomaśhīyā Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  21. Gautamīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  22. Cārāyaṇīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  23. Lakṣhmīkānta Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  24. Lakṣhmīkānta Śhikṣhā (2) (PDF)
  25. Yājñavalkya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  26. Kātyāyana Śhikṣhā) (PDF)
  27. Kātyāyanī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  28. Pārāsharīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  29. Māṇḍavya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  30. Amoghānandinī Śhikṣhā (Benares) (PDF)
  31. Amoghānandinī Śhikṣhā (BORI) (PDF)
    Laghvamoghānandinī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  32. Amareśa Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  33. Keśhavīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  34. Keśhavī_padyātmikā Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  35. Mādhyandinīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  36. Laghumādhyandinīya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  37. Māṇḍūkī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  38. Kauśhikī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  39. Śhaunaka Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  40. Laugākṣhi Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  41. Vararuchi Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  42. Hayagrīvī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  43. Kānva Śikṣā (PDF)
  44. Madhusūdanī Śikṣā (PDF)

  45. Desiderata:
  46. Hārita Śikṣā
  47. Agastya Śikṣā
  48. Bodhāyana Śikṣā
  49. Vālmīki Śikṣā
  50. Pulastya Śikṣā
  51. Bāḍabhīkāra Śikṣā
  52. Plākṣi Śikṣā
  53. Plākṣāyaṇa Śikṣā
  54. Audavraji Śikṣā


  1. Kālanirṇaya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  2. Siddhānta Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  3. Āraṇya Śikṣā (PDF)
  4. Sarvasaṁmata Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  5. Sarvasaṁmata Śikṣā Savyākhyānam (PDF)
  6. Śikṣāsamuccaya (PDF)
  7. Uccodarki (PDF)
  8. Uccodarki Savyākhyānam (PDF)
  9. Vaidyanātha Baiṭh (PDF)
  10. Jaṭāvali (PDF)
  11. Yohi Bhāṣya of Sūribhaṭṭa (PDF)
  12. Jaṭāmaṇi (PDF)
  13. Jaṭāmaṇi-vyākhyāna (PDF)
  14. Prātiśākhya (Taittirīya) (PDF)
  15. Māhiṣeya Bhāṣya of Taittirīya Prātiśākhya (PDF)
  16. Tribhāṣyaratna (PDF)
  17. Vaidikabharaṇa (PDF)
  18. Yājuṣabhūṣān commentary on Pāri Śikṣā (PDF)
  19. Svara Pañchāśat (PDF)
  20. Svarāvadhānalakṣaṇa (PDF)
  21. Antanirdeśa (PDF)
  22. Rāvaṇabaiṭh (PDF)
  23. Rāvaṇabaiṭh Paribhāṣā (PDF)
  24. Ṣaḍviṁśati sūtra (PDF)
  25. Yohiprāpti Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  26. Varṇakrama Darpaṇa (PDF)
  27. Athakāri Lakṣaṇam (PDF)

  28. Desiderata:
  29. Śikṣā Candrikā
  30. Māhiṣeyakārikā
  31. Jaṭā Candrikā
  32. Ātreya Bhāṣya of Taittirīya Prātiśākhya
  33. Vararuci Bhāṣya of Taittirīya Prātiśākhya
  34. Māhiṣeya Bhāṣya Sūtrakārikā
  35. Dīpam
  36. Varṇakramadarpaṇa
  37. Śīkṣā Saṁgraha
  38. Varṇasāradīpikā
  39. Svaracūḍāmani

  40. Additional Topical Śikṣā texts
  41. Svaravyañjana Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  42. Svarāṅkuśha Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  43. Ṣhodaśhaśhlokī Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  44. Yajurvidhāna Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  45. Svarabhaktilakṣhaṇapariśhiṣhṭa Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  46. Manaḥsvāra Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  47. Avasānanirṇaya Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  48. Galadṛik Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  49. Kramakārikā Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  50. Kramasaṁdhāna Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  51. Prātiśhākhyapradīpa Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  52. Visargāṅgulipradarśhanaprakāraḥ (PDF)
  53. Svarāṣhṭaka Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  54. Svarāṣṭaka (PDF)
  55. Padakārikāratnamālā (PDF)
  56. Pluta Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  57. Svara Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  58. Atharvavediya Dantyoṣhṭavidhi (PDF)
  59. Padachandrikā (PDF)
  60. Dvitva Lakṣhaṇam (PDF)
  61. Iṅgya Ratnam (PDF)
  62. Vedaparibhāṣāsūtra Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  63. Vedaparibhāṣhākārikā Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  64. Varṇa Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  65. Veda Śhikṣhā (PDF)
  66. Aruṇaśamānam (PDF)
  67. Jaṭāvallī (PDF)
  68. Nāradabaiṭh (PDF)
  69. Nāradabhaiṭh Vyākhyā (PDF)
  70. Praṇava Vicāra (PDF)
  71. Śākhāśamānam (PDF)
  72. Svarasamparki Savyākhyāna (PDF)
  73. Trikrama Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  74. Visarjanīya Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  75. Yamāpatti (PDF)
  76. Aniṅgya Śataka (PDF)
  77. Aniṅgya Grantha (PDF)
  78. Hrasva Saṁgraha (PDF)
  79. Piṇḍalakṣaṇam (PDF)
  80. Tṛtīya Saṁgraha (PDF)
  81. Jaṭā Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  82. Jaṭā Paṭala Kārikā (PDF)
  83. Varṇakramalakṣaṇa (PDF)
  84. Ṛgvarṇakramalakṣaṇa (PDF)
  85. Pratijñā Sūtram (PDF)
  86. Yaṇādeśadīrghiniṣedhaḥ (PDF)
  87. Ardhāntyam (PDF)
  88. Dakṣiṇāmūrtikhaṇḍa (PDF)
  89. Kampa Sūtra (PDF)
  90. Vyakti Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  91. Vṛthāvyakti (PDF)
  92. Svarabhaktiviṣaya Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  93. Stobhapada Lakṣaṇam (PDF)
  94. Svarasārabhūtavarṇakrama Śikṣā (PDF)